Classification of solvents

The following table will help you to find the right freeze drying system for your solvent-containing substance.


Maximum permissible concentration (aqu. vol-%) of solvents in freeze dryers


Aceton, acetone 1025100
Acrylsäure, acrylic acid 102580
Acetonitril, acetonitrileACN1050100
Ameisensäure, formic acid 101020
Calcium Chloride 101010
Cyclohexan, cyclohexane 105050
Diethylendioxid, Dioxan, dioxane 1025100
Dimethylacetamid, dimethylacetamideDMAC101550
Dimethylformamid, dimethylformamideDMF0520
Dimethylsulfoxid, dimethyl sulfoxideDMSO1015100
Essigsäure, acetic acid 202020
Ethanol, ethanol 1050100
Ethylacetat, Essigsäureethylester, Essigester, ethyl acetate 103080
Ethylendiamintetraacetat, Ethylendiamintetraessigsäure, tetrasodiumEDTA1010100
Ethylenoxid, ethylene oxideEO055
Hexafluorisopropanol, hexafluroisopropanolHFIP055
Hexan, Heptan (Benzin), hexane, heptane 01010
Isopropanol, isopropyl alcoholIPA1050100
Kaliumhydroxid, Ätzkali, potassium hydroxide 01020
Methanol, methanole 1050100
Methansulfonsäure, methanesulfone acidMSA0010
Methansulfonsäure, methanesulfone acidMSA0010
Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, 2-Methoxy-2-methylpropan, methyl-t-butyl etherMtBE101010
Methylenchlorid (Dichlormethan), methylene chlorideDCM101010
Natriumhydroxid, Natronlauge, Ätznatron, sodium hydroxide 101010
Natriumhypochlorit, Chlorbleichlauge, sodium hypochlorite 555
Natriumphosphat, sodium phosphate 105080
n-Benzol, benzene 51020
n-Butanol, butyl alcohol 51050
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidon, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidoneNMP5520
Peressigsäure, peracetic acid, wässrig / aqu. (6%) 006
Phenol 005
Phosphorsäure, phosphoric acid 01010
Propanol (1-Propanol, 2-Propanol) 1050100
Propylenglykol, Propylenglycol 1050100
Pyridin, pyridine 1015100
Stearinsäure, stearic acid 103030
Tetrachlormethan, carbon tetrachloride 555
Tertbutylalkohol, Butylalkohol tertiär, 2-Methyl-2-Propanol, tert butanolTBA102560
Toluol, toluene 52550
Trifluoressigsäure, trifluoroacetic acidTFA101520
Wasserstoff Peroxid, hydrogen peroxide 303060
Zitronensäure, citric acid 1025100


Your specialist for solvents

Martin Christ gained experience in the field of solvent freeze drying at an early stage. Today, in addition to the high-performance Alpha 3-4 LSCbasic laboratory freeze dryer, two pilot freeze dryers are available that allow optimum drying of end products with highly concentrated solvents.

Based on experience, a simplified classification of the solvents normally used in freeze drying into "low" - "medium" - "high" has been developed. This makes it quick and easy to decide which freeze dryer configuration is the right solution for which solvent concentration.